tv Global 3000 KCSMMHZ November 12, 2012 9:30am-10:00am PST
>> hello and welcome to global 3000. today we look at what happens to the middle classes when economies get shaken up. here's what we have in today's program. dream over -- why many latin american immigrants are giving up on a better future in spain. shifting ground -- how kenya's new middle class is changing the country. and saving the soil -- how farmers in georgia are fighting against erosion. when you board a plane from spain to latin america, apart from tourists and business travelers you will find two
types of emigrants on board. young spaniards seeking a bright new future in emerging economies like brazil or chile. and latino immigrant families who are giving up on their hope of a better life in europe. and they are all fleeing the same thing -- a debt crisis that for ordinary people only ever seems to get deeper. and so spain has been losing people by the thousands every month since the housing bubble burst in 2008. many of these immigrant families considered spain their home -- now many feel they have no choice but to get out. >> a scuffle in front of a bank in madrid. a group of activists push their way through the door, and then the protest begins. they've been laid bare, they say, betrayed by the banks and their questionable financial tactics.
most of the protesters are from latin america. for them, spain was the promised land. now they're struggling to stay afloat, mired in an ocean of debt and shady loans. edu solano is from ecuador. he says the banks pulled a fast one, and now immigrants have been left holding the bag. hipatia condor is also from ecuador. she's outraged, too. the banks are nothing but thugs and thieves, she says. back at home, hipatia condor and her family are knee deep in boxes. after fourteen years in spain, they're packing up and leaving. over the past decade, they've paid off 100-thousand euros on the mortgage for their apartment here in madrid. the bank now says all that money went towards interest. hipatia and her husband william
lost their jobs a year ago. now the bank is demanding they pay off a second loan of over 30,000 euros -- a loan they didn't even know existed. >> at the notary office back then, they told us to hurry up and sign. they didn't let us read the documents and they told us that if we didn't sign quickly, we'd also have to pay the notary fees, too. we always thought corruption happened only in latin america, that it didn't happen here in europe. we never thought that we would be cheated and lied to here, in spain, which is such a developed country. >> while we were filming here, the phone rang. it was the bank, suggesting a deal. if the condors pay the bank 10,000 euros, the rest of the second loan will be forgiven.
but they'd lose their home, of course. >> it's very sad. we're leaving 14 years behind here in spain, and we have to start over again at zero. we're starting over at zero. >> the ecuadorian government has opened an advice center here in madrid. immigrants from latin america are leaving spain in droves. this year, up to 80,000 people from ecuador have packed their bags and gone home. the crisis shows no sign of abating, and many ecuadorian immigrants have fallen victim to shady banking practices. for many, the dream of a better life here in spain has turned into a nightmare. >> we offer legal advice, and help them find lawyers who will represent them and help with the difficult negotiations with the banks.
>> hipatia condor is also here for advice. like so many ecuadorians, she came here during the building boom, in the late 1990s. now she feels betrayed. >> back then, spain welcomed us as cheap labor. now that there's a crisis, we've been abandoned. the spanish authorities won't do anything to help the immigrants here. >> the local ecuadorian soccer league has gathered for a festive kickoff. during soccer season, more than 50 teams compete each weekend. it is a slice of latin america, right in the middle of madrid. before the starting whistle, there's also a beauty contest -- but the number of participants is dwindling. >> we had 90 teams last year. this year, there aren't nearly as many.
the crisis is everywhere, and immigrants have been especially hard hit. >> the families have gathered in the park next door. during the boom years, spain was home to more than half a million ecuadorian immigrants. edu solano, who we met at the bank, is also here. he is collecting signatures to protest the bank's plan to foreclose on his mortgage. he has also fallen victim to the >> we're almost completely helpless -- no jobs, huge debts, here in a foreign country. many of us are going home, and we're worse off than when we arrived here. >> this crowd is protesting a scheduled eviction. evictions are now commonplace in cities across spain.
when they attract this much public attention, though, they're often called off at the last minute. edu solano has already received several eviction notices. he can no longer pay the mortgage on his apartment. he also says he was tricked and betrayed. his mortgage was 800 euros a month. but after one year, that amount suddenly doubled. >> it feels like war. you never know when the enemy will attack. it's nerve-wracking. i've managed to get an extension two times now. that's a small victory, but i know the enemy will be back eventually. >> hipatia condor and her family have given up their battle with the bank, and are going back to ecuador.
>> it's very sad. we're leaving behind friends, memories, a big part of our life here. >> edu solano is here to say goodbye. he'll probably be forced to leave soon, too. the bubble has burst here in spain -- and with it, their dreams of a better life have been shattered. >> to kenya now, where the situation couldn't be more different. with growth rates of around five per cent the country is the envy of africa and beyond. it's mainly down to domestic consumption. there are shopping malls popping up all over and an increasingly affluent middle class is discovering its purchasing power. but this economic development is also driven by a new generation of self made entrepreneurs. we meet up with a few of them. >> boom town nairobi -- in just five years, real estate prices
have doubled here, and so have the number of cars on the road. it's all thanks to the rising middle class. highly educated and motivated, they're a force to be reckoned with. it's a different world in the slums. nearly half of nairobi's three million residents still live like that. for them, even a train ride is a luxury. but richard kimani has a chauffeur. the entrepreneur is a prime example of the city's new movers and sakers. >> we are the motors and we help in the eradication of poverty in kenya. so poor people are not poor because they like to be poor. they are poor because maybe opportunities are not available% >> kimani's opportunity was the idea of marketing mineral water under the name mount kenyan. the water actually comes from a well on the city's outskirts. kimani employs 225 workers in
his factory. nowadays, though, most of his profits come from fruit juice. it's a lucrative business. the city's new middle class is affluent and health-conscious. he also exports juice to neighboring countries. but he hasn't yet managed to crack the european market. >> we sell as far as the middle east and we are also entering south africa, too. so we have no quality issues. it's a question of meeting the certifications that are required in europe. >> but plans are under way to clear that hurdle. kimani took out a million-euro loan from the german deg development bank, and bought a new filling system in bavaria, which he will provide with his juice concentrates.+ to make sure he has a steady supply of fruit, kimani has 360 local farmers under contract. in the past, a large portion of the mango harvest used to rot. now the farmers have a buyer. kimani doesn't mind that he's
getting wet. quite the opposite -- the rain will bring a juicier harvest. and for kimani and the farmers, that means juicier profits. >> they can learn from what we do. we have transformed this land. this was a dry land, and now it's growing mangos plus other kinds of fruit you see in this farm. >> kimani's father was a farmer. when he died, kimani sold his land to gain start-up capital for his company. but he kept his father's car: a 1938 vauxhall. one day, he wants to restore the car to its former glory. but he's much too busy for that at the moment. kimani is not part of kenya's old money. he's a newcomer to affluence. today he has a few hours to relax with his youngest son at the poolside.
sunday is his only free day of the week. nairobi's new middle class is confident and forward-looking. ideas with a solid future. martha kagiri has an office in the center of the city. after studying agriculture in kenya, she went to sweden to study environmental technology. that's where she learned about biogas plans, an idea she brought home with her. >> in so many areas of the country, the national grid is not there. so actually you still have that gap, that lack of energy in some places. so biogas is really, really useful in this country. >> she orders her gas stoves from china -- they're not top quality, but they are the most affordable. her clients are mainly mid-sized farming operations. the farmers get the raw material -- the manure -- for free. a complete biogas system starts
at 750 euros. at the construction site, martha kagiri puts on her other persona: braided hair, work clothes, and a firm, commanding voice. a woman boss is still a rarity here in kenya, but kagiri is undeterred. there are always problems that need solving. customers who are late with payments, or a wall that needs reinforcing. kagiri does it all -- including negotiating with local officials. >> you don't have to pay any bribes nowadays. before it was really really difficult. but for now, with this new government, it's been quite a step forward. >> martha kagiri grew up in this farm house. her mother still lives here. and of course, the farm house also uses biogas. six years ago, kagiri built her first biogas plant here. it supplies enough power for
cooking -- and for light. twenty years ago, the farm had no gas or electricity. kagiri and her mother gathered firewood from the forest -- often back-breaking work. kagiri was the second-youngest of five children. even back then, she was unusual. >> she was very strong willed. she was small, tough, and liked playing with the boys. she wasn't much like the other little girls. >> back in nairobi, martha kagiri is once again the elegant businesswoman. she lives alone, without a husband and children. and she's a fan of tattoos. it's an unusual life for a woman here, but the new middle classes are transforming longstanding traditions. her tattoo needs a touch-up. it shows two fists breaking
apart a link of chains -- symbolizing her independence. >> it's not so many women who do tattoos. it's not so popular. but there is the young generation, many young generation people, who are interested in tattoo nowadays. >> nairobi's new middle class is striking out on its own, bypassing tradition, the old power elites, and backroom politics. like martha kagiri, the middle class is the way of the future -- and they are changing the face of kenya. >> and if you would like to comment on any of our reports here on the programme, it's easy: find us on facebook or visit us online! and while you're there, you can fill in our global questionnaire -- just like raiya madushanka, who tells us what he thinks about globalization. >> my name is raja. i was born mirissa. i live in mirissa.
and i am 28 years old. i am doing whale and dolphin watching trips on the boat. i am a captain. i understand now is a lot of pollution and collisions of whale and dolphins what i am doing. and with the ships, they throw the plastics, diesel, oil for the ocean. when is ocean get dirty, some day we will all die. the system will break.
we have not to break this ecosystem. i worry about the corruption. right man do no right job. right person who have experience don't do that. sometimes lot of corruption everywhere in the world. i am happy with what i am doing. i think have the good job. anybody in the world. i have the best job i am doing. because this is my passion. i really like the animals and i like the sea. i do free time go surfing and swimming. 'cause i am life saver, i like to someone's life. if i come to the beach i see some people
i'd like to see the snow somewhere, since i see the sun everyday. i like snowboarding, a lot of sport i do, and i like to see the snow. i like somewhere open people. i want to study about whales and dolphins to protect them and conservation them. my father, my grandfather, we are all fishermen. we have a lot of knowledge about it, but some theory we don't know. >> over the past two decades, georgian farmers have weathered independence, a rose revolution and yet another fresh start for democracy. turbulent times -- but if you're in the business of working the and you're in it for the long haul. and that means tackling some complex challenges.
now climate change is drying out the land, eroding its mineral- rich soil. when harvests started plummeting, a project came along teaming local farmers in the kachetti region with their counterparts in germany. the beginning of a fruitful exchange. >> it's sowing time for winter barley here in eastern georgia. gela tetrauli is worried. it hasn't rained here in weeks. his seeds are top quality, but that won't mean much if growing conditions are poor. >> they're red, see. they've been specially treated against pests and disease. but that didn't help last year, either. half of my fields were useless. it was the wind -- it blew away the soil.
>> winds are strong here in the valley, at the foot of the lesser caucasus mountains. wind speeds of 50 to 60 kilometers an hour are commonplace here. overgrazing was a problem already in the soviet era. and even back then, the local farmers were trying to slow soil erosion. >> there were collective farms here, who had a few trained agriculturalists. the rest of us, we were farmers who just followed the instructions they gave us. not people with agricultural degrees, but simple farmers. nowadays we have to start learning from scratch. for example, that we need windbreaks. we have a few already, back over there. >> the dark soil in the valley is very fertile. but when the wind blows it away, the mineral-rich upper layer of soil goes with it.
now some new windbreaks are being planted here -- with financial assistance from germany. they are ash, wild pear and other fast-growing trees, which are encased to protect them from grazing cattle. the protective casings are made of biodegradable and organic plastic, which will dissolve within three years. they act as miniature greenhouses for the fledgling trees. gela tetrauli learned these methods for combating soil erosion in germany. two months before, he and a few other farmers from georgia paid a visit to some farmers in central germany. >> we're quite a bit behind, agriculturally. the germans are at least ten years ahead of us. and when we catch up with the germans, then they'll be ten more years ahead of us.
it's just like the mountains. once you've climbed the first one, the next one is already there to greet you. >> here on a farm near frankfurt, the georgian farmers learned about modern methods of soil conservation. hans kellner is an experienced farmer, and had a lot to teach them. >> look at the field here. there's plenty of empty space, where no wheat is growing. just like right here, or over here. you don't need to have your entire surface covered in wheat. the important thing is having sturdy plants, like this here. >> modern cultivation methods and careful tending help preserve the soil. hans kellner also doesn't use a traditional plow.
he uses harrows and cultivators to loosen only the top layer of soil. and the remnants of the last harvest are worked into the ground. with excellent results. the yield here is four to five times higher than in georgia. a perfect and loss-minimizing process starting from the sowing to the storage of the grain. >> the problem is you have to be present, all the time. you have to be here to give them instructions, every step of the way. they can't judge yet when it's the right moment for to start spreading fertilizer, for treatment of the plants and for getting rid of weeds. that's why i've come out here every month, for this past eighteen month. i'll probably do that next year, too. that way they slowly get a feeling for it and learn how to do it.
>> chacha -- a georgian schnapps to toast a successful visit to germany. and the return visit to georgia. two months later, hans kellner is about to pay a visit to his georgian counterpart. >> we're going to a field where they're planting winter barley. >> just like in germany, gela tetrauli is preparing the soil without deep plowing. loosening the soil in this gentle way helps preserve what little moisture is left in the soil. that will help the new seedlings. and once the plants are sturdy enough, they will help provide natural protection against soil erosion. >> we're hoping for a good harvest, of course. thanks to our collaboration with germany, we harvested up to 6 tons per hectare last year.
if you keep in mind that we used to harvest 2 and a half at most, it's a huge success. >> right now, only about a dozen farmers here are using these soil-conserving methods. but their success is the talk of georgia. >> so changing times in georgia, and time to thank you for tuning in to this edition of global 3000. that's all for today but don't forget to tune in for more reports from around the world -- same time, same place in seven days' time. until then from me and the entire global team here in berlin: auf wiedersehen and have a good week! captioned by the national captioning institute --www.ncicap.org--